"Guy Haug is one of the fathers of ERASMUS and one of the masterminds behind the Bologna process. His article "Capturing the Message Conveyed by Grades" (1997) looks at credential evaluation, credit transfer, and grade translation between the U.S. and Europe (mainly UK, Spain, France, Germany). His plea is for grade translation to be regarded as translating a message that needs to be conveyed in a different language. Grade interpretations should be done by the users, i.e. by the institutions that use them as input for their decision making, and it should move away from being an exercise in mathematics or accounting. Comparing EU grading systems with eachother and with the U.S. system, he draws attention to various pitfalls to be avoided by the careful translator."
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